8 Symptoms of Holoprosencephaly

Holoprosencephaly is a brain development abnormality where the brain does not properly separate into the left and right hemispheres. This disorder also affects the development of the face as well as that of the head. Holoprosencephaly is categorized into four types with the level of severity being the distinguishing factor among the four classes.

From the least to most severe they include middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV), lobar, semi-lobar, and Alobar. Generally, you can tell the severity of the brain defect judging by the degree of the severity of the facial defect. As such, individuals that are most severely affected by Holoprosencephaly feature one central eye – the condition is referred to as cyclopia – and a tubular nasal structure – referred to as proboscis – which is located above the eye.

The less severe forms of these conditions feature a partially divided brain. The eyes are also set close together. Other common symptoms of Holoprosencephaly include pituitary gland disorders and intellectual disability. Holoprosencephaly can result from a mutation in any of some 14 different genes as well as chromosome abnormalities or teratogens (agents that cause birth defects). It could also be a subsequent consequence of various unique genetic syndromes.

1. Seizures

A seizure is described as the sudden and uncontrollable electrical disturbance inside the brain. This disturbance causes an individual to experience changes in their feelings, behavior, movement, and level of consciousness. A tendency to having recurrent seizures is referred to as epilepsy.

There are a variety of seizure types; all varying in severity. The different types of seizures are classified according to how and where they begin in the brain. A seizure typically lasts between half a minute to two minutes.

Focal seizures are as a result of abnormal electrical activity in a particular area within the brain and they may occur with or without loss of awareness or consciousness. The symptoms of a focal seizure are similar to that of a migraine.

A generalized seizure is one that appears to involve all parts of your brain and include: absence seizures, tonic seizures, atonic seizures, clonic seizures, and myoclonic seizures.